What Are Nerve Cells?

At a cellular level, the nervous system mainly contains two types of cells, neurons and neuroglial cells. Neurons make up nerve tissue and form part of the structure and function of the nervous system. Neurons provide special functions such as thinking, controlling muscle activity, and regulating glands. Neuroglial cells are a special protective component of the nervous system.

  Neurons Neuroglial cells
Character Be able to perceive changes in the environment, then pass the information to other neurons and instruct collective reactions. Performing support and protection functions, some neuroglial cells can participate in the transmission of messages.
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  • Signals are transmitted through weak currents in nerve cells.
  • When the current reaches the synapse, it causes the cell to release a neurotransmitter, which in turn carries the message to the neighboring cell.
  • There are currently about 50 known neurotransmitters.
  • The cell membrane of nerve cells consists of phospholipids that help in the transmission of nerve signals.
  • Common phospholipids are lecithin, phosphatidylserine (PS), and phosphatidycholine (PC).


Message transmission is the main function of the nerve. The transmission speed of nerve cells is as high as 120 meters per second, which is equivalent to 432 kilometers per hour. Neurotransmitter can make the brain’s neural network more robust. It is analogous to internet speed. If a traditional 28K dial-up data machine is used to describe degraded nerves, then neurotransmitter can help the brain nerves run better and enhance the speed to ADSL broadband.